nil.enroll(aetheric_username, quantum_class_id) (adric) wrote,
nil.enroll(aetheric_username, quantum_class_id)

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Anth, 29 April 2002

last class

final : Friday 12-2

Ancient Mayans cont'd

  • pyramid stairs forced to crawl

  • city design

  • temples and stele

  • cities as mountain, temples as caves by which the earth is entered

  • stele are as tropical trees, frequently inscribed

  • open plaza used as stage for rituals

  • pyramid top used as grand stage for execution of prized captive, bound and rolled down the stairs into crowd

  • hidden passages with benches for rest

  • even passages were brilliantly painted

  • facade: red with large masks

  • bark paper soaks up blood of sacrifice and burn with black smoke

  • many city-states had four or five plazas

  • Tucal?: 7000 buildings known 5-7 sq mi

  • renewal: level temple but not pyramid and start building on top of the rubble

  • excavations sometimes unearth 3,4 temples on same site

  • blood is the food of the earth

  • treasured brilliantly colored feathers

  • jaguar: alter-ego of king

  • ball games: hard rubber ball

  • ball had to be kept in motion to continue the motion of the heavens

  • elbows, hips, knees

  • later the stone ring was added for team games on large courts

  • one goal scored would win (high hoop)

  • closer to the fall of the Mayans, loosing team would be sacrificed

  • astronomer priest obeservatory

  • page of one of 4 remaining bark paper books

  • inscription stone (being used as farm boundary)

  • recorded the date of the birth of the successor to king Smoking Rabbit

  • mural: bloodletting ritual: stringray spine, barbed rope, tongues

  • carving: queen bleeding her tongue on birth of her trial

  • Visions told the [victim] that the sacrifice was accepted

  • vision serpent [naga] was particulary profound

  • sucess signaled by priests to crowd by whistle

  • carving: king's sacrifice blood from foreskin

  • no substitute for royal sacrifices

  • droughts came on -> calls for more blood

  • wars between city states began to capture warriors not for work but for sacrifice

  • and later still commoners were captured and sacrificed

  • Mayan commoners deserted, returned to forest and tribal existence

Descendants of the Maya

  • thatched hut, poles lashed together

  • subsistence farming, wage labor

  • big families common (Catholic, Protestants encourage this)

  • hammocks, dirt floors

  • water access problematic

  • firewood becoming difficult to find (slash and burn)

  • peasant lands overfarmed

  • slash and burn soil, drought (brought on by deforestation)

  • hillsides and rocky areas never farmed before are being stripped -> erosion

  • transportation is by horse and bull cart

  • peasant stores sell beans or seed a cup at a time

  • two asprin for a quarter

  • rivers are highways

  • river taxi: large dugout with outboard, carry cargo school kids

  • schooling up to about sixth grade

  • open sewer systems, canals feed waste into river

  • open market

  • backstrap looms (lean backwards to keep tension on threads)

  • Christmas festival competition: one radish carving (beachball sized)

  • families come into town and sleep on sidewalks

  • prize: $200 (an incredible fortune locally)


  • limited access to land, water, tech, capital, and other resources

  • subsistence farmers but cash dependant

  • cash sources: wage labour (seasonal), handicrafts, cash crop

  • impact of cash crops, marketing boards, plantation system, large scale ranching

  • other links to State:

    • military service (conscription)

    • corvee: mandatory labor for government projects

  • States are dependant on the (invisible) peasants' labor

Fair Trade?

  • National Marketing Board sets price for a crop

  • illegal to sell crop without Marketing Board

  • "land reform" : sounds like nationalization

  • land is controlled by a few elite

  • thousands of acres of S. Mexico are owned by 3% population

  • foreign aid (money, food) is gov't to gov't and goes through these systems

  • try community to community, person to person aid


  • Indonesia: hand (pen knife and chisel) monkey

  • : hand () carving of elephants

  • woven bird basket

Industrial society

  • technological

  • class system

  • wasteful: superfluous plastic packaging

  • cows: eat 90% of our corn crop and do no labour, dung wasted

everything in CP
50 multiple guess: hunting and gathering, tribes, chiefdoms, pre-i states, industrial states, net site about chiefdom in pacific, articles in Reader
(not children, not unassigned)

essay questions: HO, use an index card (3" by 5")

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