nil.enroll(aetheric_username, quantum_class_id) (adric) wrote,
nil.enroll(aetheric_username, quantum_class_id)
adric

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Anth, 24 April 2002

So, I made it to class somehow...



Chiefdoms

  • permanent political officers

  • Full time religious officiaries (sometime the chief)

  • Emphasis on rank and geneology

  • Differential access to resources

  • Sumptuary "Goods" : status symbols for chief and elite

  • Chief has moral obligation to (and geneological link to) all families and individuals, to keep them alive

  • Although there will be wealthy individuals, no one will be without sustenance



why?

  • incessant warfare

  • long distance training

  • craft specialists

  • organized labor to build vessels (sea going canoes)

  • distribute goods from long-range trading expeditions

  • labor coordination (compel) for large projects (dams, tomb, defensive walls, irrigation)

  • store food (tax,tribute,gift) for redistribution (feasts, dole, pensions)

  • requires agricultural production of food that can be stored: grains, roots (yams)

  • store food for protection against crop failure, shortage or for alternate season crops

  • community size (breaks rule of 140 cf Tipping Point)


who?

  • rotate families

  • contest of skill

  • generally becomes hereditary

  • patrilineage: chief's son

  • martilineage: uncle to nephew (sisters sons)



ranking

  • families, by geneological closeness to chief

  • individuals, by birth order

  • no two individuals will be of the same rank

  • societal rights and privledges are based on rank

  • eg: sacred coconut grove only for chief and relatives



Sumptuary Goods:

  • Maori: (first warrior) chief's ritual weapon: side slapper

  • Maori: (right of first cut) ritual flesh knife (sharp fish teeth) to carve enemy (varnished with abolone insets)




State (Nation-state)

  • kings, royal elite

  • political bureaucracy

  • state religion, theocracy

  • standing armies

  • intensive agriculture

  • task specialization

  • market exchange barter

  • economic inequality

  • class, caste, slavery

  • taxation

  • writing systems

  • urban centers

  • elaborate art and architecture




  • distance between rulers, ruled impersonalization

  • large standing armies of conscripts with aristocrats as officer

  • standing armies used as internal police force (what Rand keeps calling the Rule of the Gun in Atlas Shrugged)

  • rules are edicts of elite

  • classes are large groups with multiple criteria which may include millions of people, as opposed to rank which was individual

  • caste determined by birth, unchangeable



caste

  • keeps lower classes in place

  • must marry in caste

  • keeps professional niches filled




writing

  • tax records (first recorded writing)

  • census of peoples

  • military rolls

  • "history": propagandistic self-promotion of current rulers

  • try to preserve greatness of state for long stretches of time



Maya

  • city-states

  • only known state developed in tropical forest

  • at peak had densest population of known civilizations

  • chinopas: artifical islands dredged from mud and vegetation

  • cities located along or near rivers, used for transport

  • doughts famine years upset balance of advanced agricultural techniques

  • blood rituals seemed to be failing -> more blood

  • leads to civilization collapse

  • farmers and workers fled back into the forests



Mayan writing systems

  • one of five to create a writing and math system

  • dot for unit, line for five, columns for places

  • katun: 7,200 days

  • tun: 360 days

  • uinal (wee-neels): 20 days

  • kin: 1 day

  • hierglyphics and alphabetics:
  • balam: spotted cat (generic)

  • ba-balam: jaguar

  • balam-ma: oscelot

  • ba-balam-ma: jaguars and oscelots

  • only interpret half of known Mayan glyphs

  • still a spoken language (100s of dialects)
  • computer analysis in the last thirty years led to breakthrough



Slides

  • Usa[..]

  • step pyramids




more Maya, essays for final on Monday
Exam is non comprehensive (h/g tribes, chiefdoms and states)
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