food production allows for specialization of labor, and therefore for professional art and music
Distinguishing Characteristics of Simple Band (H/G) vs Tribes:
- tribes do not travel and live together
- !! food production present in tribes, not bands !!
- T: larger populations supportable
- T: shared culture: dress, language, beliefs
- T: territory: units may unite in defense
- T: decisions
- Social Structure: tribe
- Subsistence Mode: food production subsistence and pastoral farming
- Economics: family ownership of resources, reciprocity, part-time specialists
- Mobility/Density: semi-sedentary or sedentary, low density
- Decision Making: decentralized w/ multiple decision makers and rule enforcers
- Belief Systems:
Big Men / Women
- overproduces food to sponsor feasts and give away food and goods (tools, cloth, baskets, carvings)
- to gain prestige (ego-booHtN) from other big men and women
- compare w/ conspicuous consumption
Why did monarchy ever catch on?
- need for a large military for defense/offense require strong long term authority
- labor coordination to avert famine, shortage
- long-distance trading requires such coordination
- cf "Life Without Chiefs"
band -> tribe -> chiefdom -> state -> nation ..
Pakat sp?? CP p 135
- African map
- Eastern Africa: pastoralist herding cultures
- not enough plant life or game to support H/G
- land is too poor, dry to support agriculture
- N Am: Caribou, musk ox N Russia: reindeer
- tropical domestication: cattle, goats, camels
- elders decide things by oral tradition without codification
- seek justice and repair of the community
- hear all accounts, including victims
- no private ownership of livestock, no word for "own"
- women have milking rights for an animal, but don't own an animal
- produce (nearly) all food and goods from bush and animals
- beads worn for ornamentation, traded for
- some manipulation of wealth in the short term
some extended discussion about consequences of agriculture, Atlanta's micro-climate (heat dome), and the growth of the Sahara, as well as te danger of plowing/irrigation versus more tradition (digging stick, bucket) techniques