nil.enroll(aetheric_username, quantum_class_id) (adric) wrote,
nil.enroll(aetheric_username, quantum_class_id)

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Anth, 9 Jan 2002

Carlos project update: Museum renovations of greater scope than expected, project canceled

Primates (non-human):

  • Prosimians: primitive primates (image)

    • closest to early emerging primates (of 40e6 BP)
    • no longer found in "New World"
    • Madagadcar, Oceania (Indo, Phill)
    • major primate features:

      • opposable thumb
      • forward facing eyes: binocular vision: focus on one image

    • diff from primates:

      • greyscale vision (more mammalian than primate)
      • moist nose, more sensitive

  • advantages in that time:

    • ground dangerous due to dinosaurs
    • fruit bearing trees developing

  • Monkeys: Old World v. New World

    • color vision

    • colored fur, part. around face

    • less facial hair -> facial expression

    • New World Monkeys (image):

      • Americas
      • from pocket to cat to small dog (howler)
      • prehensile tail (5th hand)
      • lack elaborate social structures of Old World
      • less danger than on ground, less need for organization
      • harder to build society in trees
      • long duration, loud vocalization -> mark territory
      • howler monkey troops audible 2 miles away (2nd loudest natural sound known)

    • Old World Monkeys (image):

      • rear callouses for sitting
      • Africa, Asia
      • tails not prehensile
      • close-knit communities

      • live on ground
      • smaller than human but much stronger
      • color used in body language

        • male blue-nosed mandrils face blush "electric" red and blue
          when aroused/angry
        • probuscus: nose swells up to 6x ""

      • baboons, macaques

    • Apes:

      • 4 varieties

      • all endangered

      • finger pad sensitivity
      • knuckle walking, curl finger under
      • no tail

      • swing through trees (brachiators: fully rotate arms)
      • Gibbon-siamang

        • swings at up to 35 mph

      • Orangutan

      • Gorilla

        • Africa

      • Chimpanzees

        • Common Chimp
        • Bonobo - extremely rare
        • Africa

      • other key primate traits

        • estrus cycle:

          • cyclical periods of fertility and sexual activity
          • 1 day in 365 for some prosimians
          • specific scent in urine
          • sexual skin on rear becomes enlarged / colored
          • chimps: non-discriminatory promiscuity may mate as much as 20 times in a cycle
          • gibbons: life monogamous
          • estrus stops between conception and weaning
          • chimps: as long as 4-5 years without sexual activity
          • conquering gorilla will kill nursing offspring to bring harem back to estrus

        • one offspring per birth (tendency)

          • newborn offspring helpless
          • must be taught everything past grasp and nurse
          • only recently have humans started to reproduce so rapidly (1 offspring/year or more)
          • when did human ancestors lose the estrus cycle

        • no menopause
        • long infant dependency
        • long maturation period
        • long life spans

        • social relationships

          • protection from danger
          • emotional support

        • individual recognition

          • chimps recognize their own faces in mirror

        • recognition of different status in groups
        • complex vocal and visual comms

          • different messsages for different situations
          • different response to different threats

        • mutual grooming for group cohesion
        • dependence on learned information/skills
        • flexible, adaptable behaviours developed through problem solving

      • Babboons and Macaques (video)
      • babboons no longer live in trees all the time
      • Japanese macaques use volcanic hot springs in winter
      • island macaques demonstrated remarkable abilities in onnvation and social learning with respect to yams and rice

      green scantron form and pencil

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